Sunday, February 16, 2020
Change Management process - Coursework Example In addition accept changes in the current business environment and embracing the desired change. Organizational change is a planned approach for ensuring smooth transition and successfully implementation of change (Hayes 150). The business needs to keep changing to remain relevant in the industry. Changes in the organization are brought about by internal and external factors of the business. According to Jabri (20) internal drivers to change in any business include: To compete effectively, it is mandatory at times for businesses to change their strategies. Adjustment in business strategies is in response to external environments. These adjustments may involve changing some fundamental approaches by the business like the target market. Structural changes in the business may involve changing the hierarchy of authority. These changes are influence by internal and external factors. All changes in the management of the business are structural. Structural changes may involve change in management or change in simple polices in the organization. The business may be forced to reengineer its processes to optimize on productivity. The introduction of the machine in the business is one way of changing the process. This internal driver influences only organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s with production processes. SolarTech Ltd. is influenced by this type of driver. Restructuring of the organization is crucial to benefit from new technologies. The main goal for any organization is minimizing costs and maximizing revenue. According to Treat (160), technology helps maximizing output while minimizing inputs. With that in mind the organization changes its structure for the new technologies to save labour costs. The introduction of the new machine is due to this driver to change. This is a modern internal driver to change. The tradition notion of Ã¢â¬Ëgoing to workÃ¢â¬â¢ has changed drastically in many organizations. A recent survey has shown
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Facilitating Changes In Health and Social Care - Essay Example These changes include legal, political, demographic, organizational, technology, and cultural. Poor change in management never works well as it creates resistance and stress. It is essential for the manager to learn an effective way on how to manage the change and help others in this crucial continual process for there to be service delivery that is effective. This paper introduces the readers to a variety of factors that can influence change. Furthermore, it provides the effect of the change to the users, staffs and organization, and the key principles of change management that is successful. The political factor is one of the factors that have a significant impact on the health and social care services. There is the introduction of some key changes by the Act of Social care and Health to the NHS in England. These changes came into existence on April 1, 2013. Some of these changes included; providing the clinical commission groups a good budget to obtain care on behalf of the local community. Also, the shifts of many responsibilities which have historically been in the Health Department to a new NHS Commission Board that is politically independent. Furthermore, the health and social act has a health specific economic regulator with the responsibility to guard against practices that are anti-competitive and also to move all NHS trust to foundation trust status (Peate, 2012). Another factor that drives change is the economic factor. Sin the year 2002, the NHS has operated on the basis of the market with a split between the provider of health care and purchase. From January 2006 and continues, every patient could choose there secondary care from their hospital of choice, and this created competition among the hospitals to attract the patients and secure their revenue. Quite numbers of researchers have examined the impact of this competitive market on clinical outcome. However, the researchers found some positive outcomes findings; competition has been
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Pros and Cons of Creative Labour Assignment question: Critically evaluate the concept of creative labour. Is it good or bad for workers and society? For the last 20-30 years the information, communication technology, media and services and industries have become the most essential and demanded things in the modern world. They bring people new opportunities, which can simplify peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and wants. I believe this Charles Landry claimed : suggests Ã¢â¬Å"that the developments made are essentially cultural as they reflect the way people perceive their problems and opportunitiesÃ¢â¬ (Charles Landry). The important point here is that these technologies and services designed and developed by humanity, are what we now call the Ã¢â¬Ëcreative labourÃ¢â¬â¢ market. Ã¢â¬Å"Creativity is essential to the way we live and work today, and in many senses always has beenÃ¢â¬ (Florida, 2002 p. 21). The purpose of this essay is to critically evaluate the concept of creative labour in order to answer the question: Ã¢â¬Å"Is it good or bad for workers and society in our worldÃ¢â¬ . Debate continues as to what creativity is exactly, what it means to be creative and how this fits into society and the wider economic environment. John Hawkins (2002) claimed that the best way to define creativity as Ã¢â¬Ëhaving a new ideaÃ¢â¬â¢; he argued that our society needs information. He also advocated that we need to be active, clever, and persistent in challenging this information. In his words, Ã¢â¬Å"there is a need to be original, sceptical, argumentative, often bloody-minded and occasionally downright negative Ã¢â¬â all these things make us creative. However, it leads us to the question: Ã¢â¬Å"where does this creativity take place?Ã¢â¬ It is possible to say that creativity is produced by creative industries and it would be the right answer, but in our society, creativity can take place anywhereÃ¢â¬ . As Hawkins (2002) said, Ã¢â¬Å"creativity is where the brain works in the determining motiveÃ¢â¬ . The psychologist Dean Keith Simonton argued that creativity is favoured by an intellect that has been enriched with diverse experiences and perspectives. Creativity is associated with a mind that exhibits a variety of interests and knowledge (Florida, 2002 p. 33). Peter Drucker said that Ã¢â¬Å"knowledgeÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"informationÃ¢â¬ are the tools and materials of creativity (Florida, 2002 p.44). Because of the ideological freight of its specific features, creative work heightens and denaturalises normal principles of work. In creative workÃ¢â¬â¢s marginal context, normal principles of work seem to contradict broader social values. (Theorising Cultural Work, 2013 p.74) To conclude this point, creativity is where thoughts are not ordinary, aesthetic, individual, smart and clever. A creative person innovates, produces, provides and develops new ideas and concepts. Creativity covers social, cultural and economic areas. The creative-labour market is crucial for workers. A creative worker is someone that communicates with society. The creative worker innovates, creates and develops for people; they focus on production. Raymond Williams claimed that creative workers are different from other workers, Ã¢â¬Å"The creative worker makes the communication of experience their central work in life Ã¢â¬â the artistÃ¢â¬â¢s work is the actual work of transmission and uses learned skills to transmit that experienceÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"Creativity involves distinct kinds of thinking and habits that must be cultivated both in the individual and in the surrounding societyÃ¢â¬ (Florida, 2002 p.21). Creative industry workers are organised and mobilised so time constraints such as normal office hours and workspaces are not set in stone. Creative workers are very influential, they form the core of the economy: science, engineering, architecture and design, education, arts, music and entertainment Ã¢â¬â even finance , law and healthcare. The creative class generates wealth and happiness Ã¢â¬â local government should develop policies to cultivate them (Florida, 2002). The creative process is social, not just individual, and thus forms of organisation are necessary (Florida, 2002). Creative work is a cooperative and independent model of production. Creative labour is power to people, where a person can take control over things they are going to create and choose how they relate to the world around them. Creativity breeds freedom, autonomy and choice, aspects which make the employee feel empowered, comfortable and in control. Free agents, so the argument goes, are able to break free from the stranglehold of large organisations and take control of their lives. (Florida, 2002 p.28). Another huge benefit for creative workers are good working condition, you can work not only at an office, but you could be in a film or radio studio, atelier, at home or even travelling across the world. Being creative is in itself a challenge, dependent upon many factors including interest and involvement from society. One example of the challenges could be an interview taken from Creative Labour. Media work in three cultural industries, told by faced is below Ã¢â¬â a documentary producer, Malcolm who shares his experience of working in the creative industries: Ã¢â¬Å"I have had an amazing life. I have watched democracy come to Argentina, witnessed the most violent riots they had in country for 50 years. I was there when the gate of Gaza were opened. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been attacked by the KGB. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve filmed with the Contras in Nicaragua, all kinds of places and amazing experiences from plane[WU1] crashes to sharing terrible tragic moments to moments of great elation. I have seen so much of the world and I have been paid to do that. So it has been a very intense life with great experiences and I am glad I had it. (Interview 37 p. 128 Ã¢â¬Å"Creative Labour. Media work in three cultural industries) The Malcolm interview explains that the experience and skills the workers earn in creative labour area cannot be found or reproduced, or recreated in other areas, but moments in history can be captured by individuals and reflected back to a wider audience. This not only provides opportunities to be a witness of history in the making but also be part of this history. To conclude, the issue of creative work is complex and contradictory Ã¢â¬â a mixture of autonomy, glamour and exploitation, inequality and precarious conditions. Media companies operating in fields as diverse and interconnected as public relations, marketing, advertising[WU2] and journalism have traditionally been considered cultural industries, representing those companies and professions primarily responsible for the industrial production and circulation of culture. (Hesmondhalgh, 2002 p. 163) In the ongoing academic debate on the definition of culture (or cultural) industries, media production tends to be emphasised as particular to the field of action of the companies and corporations involved. In recent years, policy makers, industry observers and scholars alike have reconceptualised media work as taking place within a broader context of creative industries. The term was introduced by the UK government Department of Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) in 1998, defining creative industries as: those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation pf intellectual property. This includes advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, designer fashion, film and video, interactive leisure software and computer games, television and radio. Creativity also has some negative effects on workers. The Ã¢â¬Ëcreative processÃ¢â¬â¢ can take a long time and there is a high level of risk. In recent times, technological advances have increased so rapidly, that adopting and working with the new technologies can make workers feel uncomfortable and left behind somewhat. With the economy as it is currently, and such high levels of unemployment, workers in the creative industries can struggle to maintain their career progress. This has led to a high level of competition and creates high levels of stress, but ultimately results in progress. David Hesmondhaulgh, a prominent academic and a director of Media Industries Research Centre stated in his book that Ã¢â¬Ëcreative labour and creativity is the big aspect for media workers[WU3]Ã¢â¬â¢(Hesmondhalgh 2002 p.168). In his opinion professional identity of creative industries involves four constituent elements: content, connectivity, creativity and commerce (Ibid) Professionals in media industries in particular and creative industries more generally produce content, yes. However, they also invest in platforms for connectivity Ã¢â¬â where fans and audiences provide free labour. Media work involves the Ã¢â¬ËcreationÃ¢â¬â¢ with the industries, yes, but tends to take place within a distinctly commercial context. Within a context of destabilising legacy industries and dissolving boundaries between media consumption and production, the media worker may feel isolated. However, this isolation can give some creative control to the media professional as well. Arthur (1994) suggests that Ã¢â¬Å"creating a career without boundaries could be the best, if not only, way to survive in the current work environmentÃ¢â¬ . To some extent, individuals could be seen as taking control of their career paths, resulting in a new type of self-directed job security. It could also be said that those who are willing to train themselves, become more[WU4] attractive to management and employers. By being proficient in various methods of media production, workers can use multiple creative talents to their advantage Ã¢â¬â and are increasingly expected to be doing so. In the everyday construction of a sense of self for cultural workers Ã¢â¬â that leads to a more or less coherent (or at least imagined) professional identity Ã¢â¬â it is the interplay between the values of providing[WU5] content, organising connectivity, managing creative freedom and being commercially successful (which is not necessarily an expression in monetary terms) that structures oneÃ¢â¬â¢s negotiations. There is an argument to say that working in the creative industries would seem to allow the individual to identify themselves as a single producer of content and as part of a larger whole, whereas the intermediate level of the company or organisation seems to disappear. (David Hesmondhalgh, 2002) Society massively benefits from creative and cultural labour. Creative workers are constantly thinking about what audiencesÃ¢â¬â¢ think, what they want and work on ways of delivering this. There is huge demographic analysis and numerous surveys undertaken in either new creations of technological innovations, the making of new TV shows, art, literature and other various media platforms. Creative workers make products for people and society. As Maurizio Lazzarato[WU6] said: Ã¢â¬Å"The image of society is dominated by knowledge and information workÃ¢â¬ (Lazzarato, 1996). Creativity and creative labour have a huge effect not only on workers and industries, but also on society and the world. London is a perfect example of a city of huge world status, which is defined and almost created by its cultural identity, practices and the development of its creative industries. Industries present in the capital are internationally oriented and diversified; which in itself cultivates the necessary support for both local and international creative activity. This type of activity makes London a more attractive environment to people that are artistic, thus resulting in the development of the city in economic, social and cultural ways. Charles Landry, (1997) claimed, Ã¢â¬Å"Cultural activities are inextricable to innovation and creativity, and historically this has been the lifeblood of cities as a means of unleashing their capacity to survive and adaptÃ¢â¬ . The places where the creativity and cultural activities took place in large lead only to development and gr owth of characteristic mentioned above. The cultural and creative industries are part of what is commonly referred to as the Ã¢â¬Ëservice and knowledge economyÃ¢â¬â¢. Writers who stress the role of creative (as a source of competitive advantage) point to the injection of Ã¢â¬ËcreativeÃ¢â¬â¢ work into all areas of economic life. (Andy Pratt, 2006). Another important point to make here is that creative labour and creative industries create the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"New EconomyÃ¢â¬ . The New Economy, is defined as the transition from Ã¢â¬Ëheavy industryÃ¢â¬â¢ to a new technology based economy. Creative labour is very connected to this concept because the provision of information and communication technologies (ICTs) is central to determining our economy be dynamic rather than just stable. Terry Flew (2001) stated that the core dynamics of this economic system arose out of the fusion of technologies of knowledge generation, information processing, and symbol communication with the processes of globalisation, digitisat ion and networking. He stated that these have led to the rise of the network society as the dominant form of social organisation. The point Terry Flew makes, is that creative industries and labour, whilst providing knowledge, new ideas and innovation of technologies make a huge contribution and are central to the development of our economy, which brings only benefits to our society and world as a whole. In so-called Ã¢â¬Ëold economyÃ¢â¬â¢ markets are stable, in Ã¢â¬Ënew economyÃ¢â¬â¢ markets are dynamic, the scope of completion are less national, more global. Manufacturing used to be at the core of our economy, now everything is centred around services, knowledge and information. The source of value in Ã¢â¬Ëold economyÃ¢â¬â¢ is raw materials or physical capital; you could say that now, more value is placed on human resources and social capital. In business areas, key drivers of growth was capital and labour, now is about innovation, knowledge and networking. The main source of competitive advantage was lowering cost through scale, but now is made by innovation, quality and the depth and breadth of communication. The innovation of new information and communication technologies made by creative labour has changed the tastes of business and economy workers, people started to gain broad skills and adaptability when previously they have basic job-specific skills. Innovation a nd creativity make society think and discover differently in a way that is developing all the time. To conclude, creativity, creative labour and creative industries are great, significant and essential thing in our world. Creative labour creates and innovates things, new technologies, it provides new theories and information, which affects and influences workers, people, and the overall economy. It makes social and cultural life of people, cities and the world more positive and our ways of working smarter. Creative industries is useful for workers, especially media because of its highly popular graduate employment destinations with glamorous and exciting places to work alongside other highly educated, highly skilled workers. Creativity took place in media and communications. These are: advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, designer fashion, film, interactive leisure software, music, the performing arts, publishing, software, television and radio. (Creative Industries Task Force, 1998) Reference Baker S. and Hesmondhalgh, D. (2011). Creative Labour. Media Work In Three Cultural Industries. Routledge Blair, H. (2001). Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Å"YouÃ¢â¬â¢re Only as Good as Your Last JobÃ¢â¬ : the Labour Process and Labour Market in the British Film Industry.Ã¢â¬â¢ Work, Employment and Society. 15(1): 149-169. Florida, R. (2004). The Rise of the Creative Class: And how itÃ¢â¬â¢s Transforming Work, Leisure, Community and Everyday Life. London: Basic Books. Flew, T. (2012). The Creative Industries: Culture and Policy. London: Sage Gill, R. and Pratt, A. (2008). Ã¢â¬ËIn the social factory? Immaterial labour, precariousness and cultural workÃ¢â¬â¢. Theory, Culture and Society. 25(1): 2-30 Hartley, J. (2005). Creative Industries. Blackwell. Oxford Hesmondhalgh, D. (2007). The Cultural Industries, 2nd Edition. London: Sage [WU1]Done paraphrasing [WU2]Done paraphrasing [WU3]Check para [WU4]Done in next page [WU5]Working on it [WU6]CanÃ¢â¬â¢t find a particular sentence in the book
Friday, January 17, 2020
Important figures: Ã ·Sir Walter Raleigh ? traveler, ElizabethÃ¢â¬â¢s I lover, poet, soldier, died in Tower of London. A famous English writer, poet, courtier and explorer. He was responsible for establishing the second English colony in the New World (after Newfoundland was established by Sir Humphrey Gilbert nearly one year previously, August 5 1583) on June 4, 1584, at Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina. When the third attempt at settlement failed, the ultimate fate of the colonists was never authoritatively ascertained. Ã ·John Winthrop ? governor of Massachusetts. led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor on April 8, 1630. Between 1639 and 1648 he was voted out of governorship and re-elected a total of 12 times. Although Winthrop was a respected political figure, he was criticized for his obstinacy (stubborn) regarding the formation of a general assembly in 1634. CalvinÃ¢â¬â¢s influence: Ã ·theory of predestination, limited redemption Ã ·self trials to find destiny Ã ·the only hope was faith in God. Ã ·GodÃ¢â¬â¢s goodwill ? irresistible grace Ã ·faith makes everyone good but good deeds without faith donÃ¢â¬â¢t work Ã ·one should follow their destiny, ex. become a farmer, following destiny will make you successful, (wealthy) but you shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t donÃ¢â¬â¢t spend money, invest it! Ã ·the holy act of making money for God Puritans were waiting for signs, they read ? books to readÃ¢â¬â¢ (the Bible), interpreted it, interpreted history in their own, Puritan way. Anything could be a sign (weather conditions, Indian attacks, diseases, famine, etc. ). Puritan faith: Ã ·grim, no paintings, no music Ã ·sermons were extremely important as they interpreted the Bible Michael Wigglesworth: (1631-1705) Ã ·wrote The Day of Doom (1662) Ã¢â¬â his poem represents puritan thought of the time. Many of the puritans memorized it and used it to get people back into the church. They used it to teach children and lingering adults. This was the first Ã¢â¬Å"best sellerÃ¢â¬ , even though this term wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t used yet. It describes the Day of Judgment and the sentencing to punishment in hell of sinners and of infants who died before baptism. Samuel Danforth: (1626-1674) Ã ·In 1670, he was invited to give the annual election sermon to the General Assembly, which was afterwards printed as A Brief Recognition of New-EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s Errand into the Wilderness (about turning nature into civilization) and is regarded as one of the finest examples of the Ã¢â¬Å"jeremiadÃ¢â¬ form Ã ·jeremiad sermons Ã¢â¬â explained things form the Bible, created context, it said that future is glorious because we can be better, improve ourselves History interpretations: Cotton Mather: (1663-1728). Ã ·Magnalia Christi Americana (about religious development of Massachusetts, and other nearby colonies in New England from 1620 to 1698); the English title was The Ecclesiastical History of New England (1702) Ã ·he also wrote descriptions of the Salem Witch Trials, in which he criticizes some of the methods of the court and attempts to distance himself from the event; account of the escape Hannah Dustan, one of the most famous to captivity narrative scholars; his complete Ã¢â¬Å"catalogusÃ¢â¬ of all the students that graduated from Harvard College, and story of the founding of Harvard College itself; and his assertions that Puritan slaveholders should do more to convert their slaves to Christianity Ã ·made a heritage, typological approach 08. 10. 2007 Religious texts: Ã¢â¬â sermons ? instruments of communication between the minister and the people Ã¢â¬â theological thesis Ã¢â¬â chronicles (historical) Mary Rowlandson (1635-7 ? 1678) Ã ·She was a colonial American woman, who wrote a vivid description of the seven weeks and five days she spent living with Native Americans. Her short book, Ã ·A Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson (1682), is considered a seminal work in the American literary genre of captivity narratives. The first phase of heroic period ? first 30 years, after that a serious problem occurred? experience of conversion, but not everyone did it so what to do with their children? 1662 ? Halfway Covenant (by Senate in Boston) ? salvation is heredity even if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t experienced it. 17th century was more flexible what led to great religious revival in the US, literary phenomenon, outburst of religious emotions ?Ã thus texts. George Whitefield ? a rhetorician, preacher, appealed to American people, triggered religious revival. The Great Awakening: (1735 ? 1750) Ã ·paradoxical movement, they considered themselves as only true Puritans but they were considered almost heretical movement, their enthusiasm had negative connotations, people thought they should be more rational Ã ·leaders: Jonathan Edwards who wrote a fire-and-brimstone sermon entitled Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God (1741), he believed in Protestant dogma, he wanted people to experience real conversion, was against formalÃ sermons, he had a hypnotic way of teaching, appealing to emotions, he was forced to move and live in wilderness, died of smallpox. He was an active philosopher, tried to combine old religion with LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s new approach to religion. Ã ·the movement (the Great Awakening) was the last significant moment to regain control by Puritans Edwards vs. Franklin ? they lived in the same time, enlightenment competing with the old heritage Franklin was born in Boston and he wanted to move to Philadelphia ? city of enlightenment, Quakers, city owned by William Penn. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Ã ·Autobiography (written in 1771 Ã¢â¬â 1790) -Learning model behavior, proposed model human being, he would respond to the beauty of the world, and nature as a living presence of God, story of narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s progress from Boston to Philadelphia, devoted himself to common good, he made success count most (financial in your own eyes and prestige in othersÃ¢â¬â¢ eyes) -12 commandments, itÃ¢â¬â¢s good to imitate Jesus and Socrates (although Socrates was a pagan and a suicider) Ã ·Poor RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s Almanac -was a yearly almanack published by Benjamin Franklin, who adopted the pseudonym of Ã¢â¬Å"Poor RichardÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"Richard SaundersÃ¢â¬ for this purpose. The publication appeared continuously from 1732 to 1758. It was a best seller for a pamphlet published in the American colonies; print runs reached 10,000 per year. Franklin, the American inventor, statesman, and publisher, achieved success with Poor RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s Almanack. Almanacks were very popular books in colonial America, with people in the colonies using them for the mixture of seasonal weather forecasts, practical household hints, puzzles, and other amusements they offered. Poor RichardÃ¢â¬â¢s Almanack was popular for all of these reasons, and also for its extensive use of wordplay, with many examples derived from the work surviving in the contemporary American vernacular. Addressed to farmers (almanacs), useful information about farming, weather, astronomy, moral advice, many proverbs, (for example Ã¢â¬Å"God helps those who help themselvesÃ¢â¬ what is opposite to Puritan philosophy), Do good papers, colonies literature. Franklin developed practical procedure of self improvement day by day and step by step to be thoroughly rational human being. political literature ? debate between Federalists and anti-Federalists Americans identified with Ancient Rome, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the Declaration was born. The creators were educated, they read Greek, Roman works, developed sense of public virtue, conflict with the British Crown. Locke, Milton ? inspired colonies to develop ideology to sewer the ties with the Crown + Ã¢â¬Å"no taxation without representationÃ¢â¬ Thomas Paine (1737-1809) Ã ·in 1774 ? came to America as an old man, in 1776 he published Common sense, an anti-British book about Britain illegal financial abuse, appealed to Americans self-confidence, enough to be independent, to shape their destiny by determination, stamina, brains etc. The document denounced British rule and, through its immense popularity, contributed to stimulating the American Revolution. Hartford Wits (also called the Connecticut Wits) A group of American writers centered around Yale University and flourished in the 1780s and 1790s. Mostly graduates of Yale, they were conservative federalists who attacked their political opponents with satirical verse. Members included Joel Barlow, Timothy Dwight IV, David Humphreys, John Trumbull, Lemuel Hopkins, Richard Alsop, and Theodore Dwight. Works produced by the group include: The Anarchiad (published in the New Haven Gazette from 1786? 1787) The Political Greenhouse (Connecticut Courant, 1799) The Echo (American Mercury, 1791? 1805) John Trumbull (1756-1843) Ã ·believed in poetics, aesthetics, heroic couplet, satire. Member of a group of artists who painted important American historical events, Trumbull had an insiderÃ¢â¬â¢s view of the War, serving as a colonel in the Continental Army and aide to Gen. Washington in the American Revolution Ã ·The Progress of Dullness (1772-1773) Ã¢â¬â n attack in three poems on educational methods of his time (three parts: 1. adventures of Tom Brainless, sent to college, he learns Ã¢â¬Å"the art of preaching,Ã¢â¬ ; 2. Dick Hairbrain, a town fop, the son of a wealthy farmer, ridiculous in dress, empty of knowledge, but profound in swearing and cheap infidelity; 3. Miss Harriet Simper, slender female education, formerly in vogue, and the life of the coquette) Timothy Dwight (1752-1817) Ã ·continued Wigglesworth tradition Ã ·The Conquest of Canaan (pub. 1785) ? ambitious epic in eleven books, about George Washington & war of independence Ã ·Greenfield Hill (1794) Ã¢â¬â descriptive poem about small New England town, turned by Dwight into ideal place to live, with common wellbeing, where people take care of education, etc. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s also a historical poem, about Peacock (Indian tribe) war and massacre of Indians Ã ·Travels in New England and New York (1820-1822) Ã¢â¬â huge publication, sort of a tourist guide, covers areas of Southern New England. He loved the place and wanted to commemorate it. Joel Barlow (1754-1812) Ã ·graduate of Yale, he died in Zarnowiec in Poland of pneumonia while he was on his journey to the Emperor in France Ã ·Poem, Spoken at the Public Commencement at Yale College (1781) ? becoming American diplomat Barlow witnessed French return to France after the war; Ã ·The Vision of Columbus (1787)? poem about future glory of America, Columbus visited by an Angel in prison (like in Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius where the author is visited by incarnation of philosophy; parallel of Columbus) Ã ·1807 ? Barlow changed his religious, political option, became enthusiast of the French Revolution; Ã ·1st American poem ? BarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s first attempt Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784) Ã ·black slave woman from Senegambia, purchased by Boston Whitley (sort of philanthropist). She managed to learn English, extremely gifted girl, learnt to read (Milton, Homer), write. She was allowed to study, learn Latin. She started to write good poetry, praised by George Washington, but Jefferson didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like her poetry ? point of controversy. She expressed sort of gratitude, makes references to Greek poetry, ancient Rome, neo-classical poetry, giving a testimony that she decided to adopt, make her way to elite, in England she was a well known poet. She died young. 15. 10. 2007 Michel Guillaume (also known as Hector Saint John de Crevecoeur) (1735? 1813) Ã ·French-American writer, fought on the French side in the French and Indian War, then moved to New York State, becoming a naturalized citizen. After travels through various colonies, he settled on a farm in Orange Co, New York. Ã ·wrote a number of essays and books which portrayed life in the New World Ã ·Letters from an American Farmer (1784) where he describes conditions on the frontier, says that in America men are free, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a beautiful, natural country of liberty. Sketches of the 18th century America ? slaves, animals, community, style of slavery practice in the South, American farmers are not happy because of the lies of Independence. Early American novels had to compete with a large amount of English novels. They were also fiction and lies. SENTIMENTAL NOVELS William Hill Brown (1765-1793) Ã ·The Power of Sympathy (1789) ? first American novel written by first American novelist. Controversial for its time, displays the themes of seduction, betrayal, and incest. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a moral novel written in letters. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s against immoral behavior, sort of educational guide against seduction. Plot: written in correspondence: several letters between friends and lovers. two young people fall in love, but in fact theyÃ¢â¬â¢re brother and sister. They woman kills herself because she had fallen in love with her own brother and then the man devastated commits suicide. Susanna Haswell Rowson (1762-1824) Ã ·Charlotte Temple (1791) Ã¢â¬â first American bestseller ? seduced young lady gives a birth to a child, Lucy, then dies. Successful novel but Susanna didnÃ¢â¬â¢t make money for it as the novel was published illegally. It is characterized by emphatic moralism and melodramatic language, the idea that women should take care of each other. Written to protect young women from the pain of social rejection, includes theme of seduction and betrayal. Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) Ã ·Clarissa, or, the History of a Young Lady (1748) Ã¢â¬â epistolary novel, tells the tragic story of a heroine whose quest for virtue is continually thwarted by her family. It is commonly cited as the longest novel in the English language. Clarissa is a beautiful and virtuous young lady whose family has become very wealthy only in recent years and is now eager to become part of the aristocracy. Her relatives attempt to force her to marry a rich but heartless man against her will and, more importantly, against her own sense of virtue. Desperate to remain free, she is tricked by a young gentleman of her acquaintance, Lovelace, into escaping with him. However, she refuses to marry him, longing ? unusual for a girl in her time ? to live by herself in peace. Lovelace, in the meantime, has been trying to arrange a fake marriage all along, and considers it a sport to add Clarissa to his long list of conquests. However, as he is more and more impressed by Clarissa, he finds it difficult to keep convincing himself that truly virtuous women do not exist. The continuous pressure he finds himself under, combined with his growing passion for Clarissa, drives him to extremes and eventually he rapes her. Clarissa manages to escape from him, but becomes dangerously ill. When she dies, however, it is in the full consciousness of her own virtue, andÃ trusting in a better life after death. Lovelace, tormented by what he has done but still unable to change, dies in a duel with ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s cousin. ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s relatives finally realise the misery they have caused, but discover that they are too late and Clarissa has already died. Ã ·Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740) is an epistolary novel. It tells the story of a maid named Pamela whose master, Mr. B. , makes unwanted advances towards her. She rejects him continually, and her virtue is eventually rewarded when he shows his sincerity by proposing an equitable marriage to her. In the second part of the novel, Pamela attempts to accommodate herself to upper-class society and to build a successful relationship with him. The story was widely mocked at the time for its perceived licentiousness and it inspired Henry Fielding (among many others) to write two parodies: Shamela (1741), about PamelaÃ¢â¬â¢s true identity; and Joseph Andrews (1742), about PamelaÃ¢â¬â¢s brother. Hannah Webster Foster (1758-1840) Ã ·The Coquett,; or, The History of Eliza Wharton (1797) is an epistolary novel. Published anonymously until 1866, 26 years after WebsterÃ¢â¬â¢s death. It was one of the best-selling novels of its time. The novel is a fictionalized account of the story of Elizabeth Wharton, the daughter of a clergyman who died after giving birth to a stillborn, illegitimate child at a roadside tavern. Writers and preachers of the day blamed her demise on the fact that she read romance novels, which gave her improper ideas and turned her into a coquette. Foster responded with The Coquette, which provided a more sympathetic portrayal of Wharton and described the difficulties faced by middle-class women. Tabitha Tenney (1762-1837) Ã ·Female Quixotism (1801) ? the heroine goes mad, she has a strange idea of love (all men are the heroes of romances). She had some candidates but she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like them. The book is rather a parody. The woman canÃ¢â¬â¢t get married, she makes wrong choices, rejects good man and accepts the dishonest ones. HORROR STORIES ? THE GOTHIC NOVEL Ann Radcliffe (1764 Ã¢â¬â 1823) Ã ·pioneer of the gothic novel. English writer. Ã ·The Mysteries of Udolpho (1794) Ã¢â¬â follows the fortunes of Emily St. Aubert who suffers, among other misadventures, the death of her father, supernatural terrors in a gloomy castle, and the machinations of an Italian brigand. Often cited as the archetypal Gothic novel, Charles B. Brown (1771 Ã¢â¬â 1810). Ã ·he wanted to be professional writer but people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to read him. He quitted and became a political writer. He was the first American gothic writer. Ã ·Wieland, or, the Transformation (1798) ? Theodore Wieland is master of a landed estate, which he has inherited from his father, an immigrant from Germany. Wieland Senior was a man of strange inclinations who, having built a temple on a hillock in the grounds, devoted to his own idiosyncratic religion, later dies mysteriously of spontaneous combustion (samospalenie). Wieland inherits his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s god-fearing disposition. However the rural idyll he shares with his wife, children, sister and best friend is shattered when he becomes prey to the trickery of Carwin: a mysterious ventriloquist (brzuchomowca) who has moved to the area after leading an undercover life of deception in Europe. Under the influence of religious mania and CarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s trickery Wieland kills his wife and children as a demonstration of his obedience to a Ã¢â¬Ëdivine voiceÃ¢â¬â¢. In court he expresses no remorse for his deeds and later escapes from prison to attempt the life of his sister, before being stopped in his tracks by the command of a final Ã¢â¬Ëdivine voiceÃ¢â¬â¢, which in reality emanates from Carwin. Wieland then commits suicide. The story is told as a first person narrative by WielandÃ¢â¬â¢s sister Clara. As the story proceeds her initial calm and rational disposition is sorely tried by the uncanny and bloody events of the story, which reduces her, by the end, to a state of near mania. Her relations with the deceiver Carwin are ambiguous, veering between attraction and repulsion as the story unfolds. Apparently the novel was based on the true story of a multiple murder which took place at Tomhannock, New York in 1781. Ã ·Ormond; or, the Secret Witness (1799) ?Ã about lady who kills her seducer with a penknife. The novel engages with many of the periodÃ¢â¬â¢s popular debates about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s education, marriage, and the morality of violence, while the plot revolves around the Gothic themes of seduction, murder, incest, impersonation, romance and disease. Set in post-revolutionary Philadelphia, Ormond examines the prospects of the struggling nation by tracing the experiences of Constantia, a young virtuous republican who struggles to survive when her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s business is ruined by a confidence man, and her friends and neighbors are killed by a yellow fever epidemic. Ã ·Arthur Mervyn (1799) Ã¢â¬â Arthur Mervyn suffers form yellow fever, discovered by Dr. Stevens who invites him home. Mr. Wortley comes over to Dr. Stevens, recognizes Arthur Mervyn, and reacts with extreme displeasure. Dr. Stevens demands an explanation. Mervyn begins to tell his story. This is the frame, nearly three quarters of the book bring MervynÃ¢â¬â¢s adventures up to this moment in time. Ã ·Edgar Huntly; or, Memoirs of a Sleep-Walker (1799) Ã¢â¬â The story of a young man who sleepwalks each night and is a threat to himself and others, unable to control his baser passions. Set outside Philadelphia in 1787, the book is a metaphor for the founding of a new nation, but can be read on a literal level as an American Ã¢â¬Å"GothicÃ¢â¬ novel. Placed in the middle of wilderness. Young man wakes up in a dark hotel room, he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how he got there, he has a tomahawk. Kills a panther and eats it raw. Eventually returns home. Isaac Mitchell (1835-1893) Ã ·Alonzo and Melissa (1804) ? gothic castle on Long Island. Explanation that the castle was built by Puritans. ADVENTURE NOVELS Royall Tyler (1757-1826) Ã ·The Algerine Captive (1797) Ã¢â¬â about a Harvard-educated American schoolteacher turned doctor, who was captured by Barbary (the Algerians) pirates in 1788 and sold into slavery in the City of Algiers. Description of conditions in which black slaves were kept on ships. At the end the character returns to USA. Ã ·The Contrast (1790) Ã¢â¬â is an American play in the tradition of the English Restoration comedies of the seventeenth century; it takes its cue from SheridanÃ¢â¬â¢s The School for Scandal, a British comedy of manners that had revived that tradition a decade before. Royall uses the form to satirize Americans who follow British fashions and indulge in Ã¢â¬ËBritish vicesÃ¢â¬â¢. Hugh Henry Brackenridge (1748-1816) Ã ·Modern Chivalry: Containing the Adventures of Captain John Farrago and Teague OÃ¢â¬â¢Regan, His servant (1792) is a rambling, satirical American novel. The book is arguably the first important work of fiction about the American frontier and called Ã¢â¬Å"to the West what Don Quixote was to EuropeÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Å"a more thoroughly American book than any written before 1833. Ã¢â¬ The model of modern chivalry was Don Quixote Ã¢â¬â they travel all over US. Cultural change was in Boston or around Boston in 18th century. New cultural force ? Unitarianism. Dutch Bishop, rejected the dogma of the predestination, unificated the Great Trinity to one God Father. Unitarians believed that people can improve themselves without grace of God. New, much more optimistic model of human being began. Sermons ? people should show likeness to God by practicing virtues, trying to be good. Henry Ware Ã¢â¬â educated at Harvard College, Professor at Harvard, precipitating a controversy between Unitarians and more conservative Calvinists. He took part in the formation of the Harvard Divinity School and the establishment of Unitarianism there in the following decades, publishing his debates with eminent Calvinists in the 1820s. William Emerson Ã¢â¬â In 1804, Emerson founded the Anthology Club, a Boston literary society, and wrote articles for the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s The Monthly Anthology. This publication was the forerunner of the North American Review, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s leading literary journal, and the ClubÃ¢â¬â¢s reading room led to the founding in 1807 of the Boston Athenaeum. Joseph Stevens Buckminster Ã¢â¬â Upon his graduation, he became minister of the Brattle Street Church in Boston, and quickly launched an almost legendary career of eloquent preaching, biblical scholarship, and literary production which set the tone for the pattern of the minister as a man of letters. In 1801 he traveled to Europe and returned with books. He was the most brilliant member of the Anthology Club, an early editor of the Monthly Anthology, and in 1811 was appointed Dexter Lecturer at Harvard where he occupied the first Chair in Scripture. BuckminsterÃ¢â¬â¢s influence on his contemporaries was striking. His mastery of the emerging New Criticism from German Biblical scholars led to his rational investigation of the Bible, subjecting its text to the same scrupulous scholarly investigation given other texts from antiquity. Founded in Boston in 1815, The North American Review (NAR) was the first literary magazine in the United States, and was published continually until 1940, when publication was suspended due to World War II. The ReviewÃ¢â¬â¢s first editor, William Tudor (1779-1830), and other founders had been members of BostonÃ¢â¬â¢s Anthology Club, and launched The North American Review to foster a genuine American culture. In its first few years it was published poetry, fiction, and miscellaneous essays on a bi-monthly schedule, but in 1818 it became a quarterly with more focused contents intent on improving society and on elevating culture. The Review promoted the improvement of public education and administration, with reforms in secondary schools, sound professional training of doctors and lawyers, rehabilitation of prisoners at the state penitentiary, and government by educated experts. Its editors and contributors included such literary and political New Englanders as John Adams, George Bancroft, Nathaniel Bowditch, William Cullen Bryant, Lewis Cass, Edward T. Channing, Caleb Cushing, Richard Henry Dana, Alexander Hill Everett, Edward Everett, Jared Sparks, George Ticknor, Gulian C. Verplanck, Daniel Webster. 22. 10. 2007 Norton Anthology ? early times, complaining about American literature, being poor, inferior to British, what should be done to improve Madame de Stael (1766-1817) Ã ·quickly translated into English, pub. in New York; as a French-speaking Swiss author living in Paris and abroad. She influenced literary tastes in Europe at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries Walter Cherning ? in North American review, tried to apply MadameÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas to American context The Analectic ? literary magazine There was no a really popular, one author in American unknown for Europe (in literature) until Irving. Washington Irving (1783 Ã¢â¬â 1859) Ã ·One of the first noted American authors to be highly acclaimed in Europe during his life time, Irving was a prolific author of fiction and non-fiction. He wrote numerous short stories, biographies, histories, and tales of his travels. His characters Ichabod Crane and Rip van Winkle are now icons of popular American culture, and many of IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s works have inspired adaptations to the stage and film. Ã ·Washington, while born sickly, was a mischievous and adventuresome young man, sneaking out at night to attend plays and frustrating his pious parents, especially his father. He roamed the city and environs, dreaming of far-off placesÃ¢â¬âdreams that were partly fueled by one of his favourite books, Daniel DefoeÃ¢â¬â¢s Robinson Crusoe. Travelling would become a life-long passion. Although he was not an avid student, he studied law and became a clerk. Ã ·Suffering from ill-health off and on for many years, in 1804 Irving set sail from New York Harbour, the first of many trips abroad: he was going to a spa in Bordeaux, France to treat a lung ailment. He learned French, made many friends, travelled through Europe. In 1806 he returned to America. Ã ·with his brother William and James Kirke Paulding created a semi-monthly periodical World of New York to compete with the more sombre news publications of the day. While it was short-lived The Salmagundi Paper; or, the Whim-Whams and Opinions of Laucelot Langstaff, Esq. And Others. (1809) was met with great success. The Jonathan Swift-like satire and tongue-in-cheek pokes at politics, culture, and society was Ã¢â¬Å"to instruct the young, reform the old, correct the town, and castigate the age. Ã¢â¬ Ã ·The Salmagundi Papers (1809) Ã¢â¬â satirical work by Washington Irving (under the pen name Diedrich Kinckerbocker), with the title being derived from the dish. The work is nowadays remembered especially for first popularizing the sobriquet Gotham for New York City. Ã ·In a similar vein Irving composed his first novel, KnickerbockerÃ¢â¬â¢s History of New York (1809). A burlesque and comprehensive weaving of fact and fiction, his Ã¢â¬Å"History of New-York from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch DynastyÃ¢â¬ is narrated by Diedrich Knickerbocker and won Irving much acclaim at home and abroad. Ã ·IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s short stories, first printed in America under his pseudonym Geoffrey Crayon between the years 1819-20 were collected in The Crayon Papers and The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. They contain two of IrvingsÃ¢â¬â¢ most famous tales: Rip van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. These stories were wildly popular in America and soon too in Europe. Ã ·His next novel was Bracebridge Hall, or, The Humorists, A Medley (1822). Published under the pseudonym Geoffrey Crayon, centers on an English manor, its inhabitants, and the tales they tell. Interspersed with witty, evocative sketches of country life among the English nobility is the well-known tale Ã¢â¬Å"The Stout GentlemanÃ¢â¬ and stories based on English, French, and Spanish folklore, vividly recounted with IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s inimitable blend of elegance and colloquial dash. They include Dolph Heyliger the story of a New Yorker who encounters a haunted house, ghosts, and a buried treasure. Ã ·It was followed by Tales of a Traveller (1824), which Irving considered one of his finer works. A last experiment with fiction before he turned to the writing of history, biography, and adaptation of folktales. Arranged in four sections, the miscellany of short fiction reveals elements of comedy and melodrama new to IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s work. The first three groups of stories have a European background, while the final five stories, supposedly Ã¢â¬Å"found among the papers of the late Diedrich Knickerbocker,Ã¢â¬ are set in New York and feature pirates and buried treasure. Ã ·In 1826 Irving moved to Madrid, Spain, where he set to writing his highly lauded The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828), Chronicle of the Conquest of Granada (1829), and Tales of the Alhambra (1832) Ã¢â¬â rich compendium of tales, deftly interwoven with historical accounts and picturesque sketches, was assembled from Spanish and Moorish folklore, history, guidebooks, and anecdotes of IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences among the local residents. The forty-nine pieces range from stories based on GranadaÃ¢â¬â¢s colorful history to graceful vignettes of its contemporary scene, from romantic descriptions of the local architecture and terrain to medieval tales of the supernatural. Ã ·Astoria: Anecdotes of an enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains (1836). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦. I have felt anxious to get at the details of their adventurous expeditions among the savage tribes that peopled the depths of the wilderness. Ã¢â¬ It explores IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s impressions from travels in Canada and America as guest of John Jacob AstorÃ¢â¬â¢s Northwest Fur Company. Irving expresses his sympathy to the displaced, and dispossessed Ã¢â¬ËsavageÃ¢â¬â¢ Native American Peoples in such stories as Ã¢â¬Å"Philip of PokanoketÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"Traits of Indian CharacterÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"Origin of the White, the Red, and the Black MenÃ¢â¬ . first American Literary Account of the Wild West, surprised that his view is different from Ch. BrowningÃ¢â¬â¢s (who portrayed the Westerners as wild animals). Irving portrays them as human, describes buffalo hunting (exaggerated a bit as he describes himself hunting). Counts as the earliest literary description of the West. Ã ·The Adventures of Captain Bonneville (1837) Ã¢â¬â Drawing on BonnevilleÃ¢â¬â¢s own journals, Washington Irving chronicles the exploits and adventures of Captain James Bonneville, one of the earliest explorers of the American West, detailing his various journeys with mountain man Joseph Rutherford Walker; their discovery of Yosemite, Walker Pass, and the Bonneville Salt Flats; and life among the Native Americans and trappers of the West. Ã ·IrvingÃ¢â¬â¢s last finished work, something he had been working on for many years but kept putting aside for other more pressing projects is his Life of George Washington (1859). Ã ·The Legend of Sleepy Hollow (1820) Ã¢â¬â The story is set circa 1790 in the Dutch settlement of Tarry Town, New York, in a secluded glen called Sleepy Hollow. It tells the story of Ichabod Crane, a lanky schoolmaster from Connecticut, who competes with Abraham Ã¢â¬Å"Brom BonesÃ¢â¬ Van Brunt, the town rowdy, for the hand of 18-year-old Katrina Van Tassel, only daughter of a wealthy farmer. As Crane leaves a party at the Van Tassel home on an autumn night, he is pursued by the Headless Horseman, supposedly the ghost of a Hessian trooper who lost his head to a cannonball during Ã¢â¬Å"some nameless battleÃ¢â¬ of the American Revolutionary War and who Ã¢â¬Å"rides forth to the scene of battle in nightly quest of his head. Ã¢â¬ Crane disappears from town, leaving Katrina to marry Brom Bones, who was Ã¢â¬Å"to look exceedingly knowing whenever the story of Ichabod was related. Ã¢â¬ Ã ·Rip Van Winkle (1819) Ã¢â¬â The story of Rip Van Winkle is set in the years immediately before (the early to mid-1770s) and after the American Revolutionary War (the early to mid-1790s). Rip Van Winkle, a villager of Dutch descent, lives in a nice village at the foot of New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s Catskill Mountains. An amiable man whose home and farm suffer from his lazy neglect, he is loved by all but his wife. One autumn day he escapes his naggi.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Film Versions of Shakespeare Comedies Shakespearean plays are complex, intricate pieces of work in which a diverse range of interpretations and readings can be made. This is particularly true of his comedies, where the light-hearted humour is often offset by darker, more serious undertones. In adapting these comedies it is for the director Ã¢â¬â in the cinematic context Ã¢â¬â to decide how to interpret the play and which elements are privileged and which are suppressed. This variance in interpretation is exemplified in comparing two of the more recent cinematic adaptations of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s comedies, Trevor NunnÃ¢â¬â¢s Twelfth Night and Kenneth BranaghÃ¢â¬â¢s A Much Ado About Nothing [Ã¢â¬ËMuch AdoÃ¢â¬â¢]. Although both films can to an extent be seen asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This action is the first imperative step that leads to the undoing of several characters, primarily Malvolio. It is essentially MalvolioÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate narcissism that allows the other characters to easily plot his demi se . NunnÃ¢â¬â¢s adaptation of Feste is not dissimilar to Malvolio with his interpretation of the Ã¢â¬Ëprofessional clownÃ¢â¬â¢ proving persuasive because the fool presents wise insights into the complicated web of love that many principal characters become entwined with. His ability to suggest that love is a game, that lovers often love to love, and that love can be almost blind, are important themes to the attraction and comedy of the film. However Nunn utilises Feste above the scope of the comedic, with his poignant insights reminding the audience that this film is in fact dealing with serious issues and at times, the deeper, disturbing, side of love. In Ben KingsleyÃ¢â¬â¢s moving performance, Feste becomes an outsider as a man who lives alone away from OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s house yet somehow witnesses all that occurs amongst the characters and provides some telling insights. This is illustrated when he shows Olivia why take away the fool could mean take away the lady, arguing not on ly to save his job but also out of a deep compassion for OliviaÃ¢â¬â¢s grief over her brothers death, and a desire to show why she need not commitShow MoreRelated What is drama? The Collins dictionary describes drama as a serious1360 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesentertainment needs. Today technology has helped drama mature. The public is able to view their favourite soap opera or comedy program on the television or on the Internet. William Shakespeare was and still today is believed to be the greatest playwright of all time. He had the ability to pack the theatre every night when he was performing in one of his 37 plays of comedies, histories and tragedies. Baz Ulhrman described him as being incredibly popular In the late 16th century ShakespearesRead MoreBenedick And Beatrice In William Shakespeares Much Ado About Nothing1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWilliam ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s classic comedy Much Ado About Nothing follows the story of the two famous pairs of young lovers; Claudio and Hero, and Benedick and Beatrice. Although mainly following the first pair throughout the text, the relationship between Benedick and Beatrice is followed throughout the text with less attention from the reader, not noticing love forming between the two. Shakespeare sets his text in Messina, a town located on the island of Sicily in Italy. The play mainly takes place atRead MoreDifferences Of Shakespeare And Much Ado About Nothing By William Shakespeare1668 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare was a well known British writer who was known for the many plays and sonnets he wrote. This 16th century writer wrote a play called Much Ado About Nothing in the year 1598 (Alchin). This play consists of many charact ers meddling into each others lives, causing chaos, lots of drama, and even romance making for some very comedic entertainment. The title gives away a lot about the plot that it really is a lot about nothing. Shakespeare is regarded as a very influential writer inRead More Shakespeare In Love -Combination of Romantic Comedy and Shakespearean Tragedy1505 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesShakespeare In Love -Combination of Romantic Comedy and Shakespearean Tragedy William Shakespeare once told us, All the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s a Stage Ã¢â¬âand now his quote can be applied to his own life as it is portrayed in the recent film, Shakespeare In Love. This 1998 motion picture prospered with the creative scripting of Tom Stoppard and Marc Norman and direction of John Madden. The combined effort of these men, on top of many other elements, produced a film that can equally be enjoyed by the ShakespeareRead MoreBaz s Film And William Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet939 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBaz Lurhmann film or William Shakespeare play Romeo Juliet is one of the most famous plays of all time. All most ever person in the world has heard of this play and the author William Shakespeare. William Shakespeare is one of the first authors to have a play start off as a comedy but ends up as a tragedy. A lot people have even tried to turn Romeo Juliet into a movie. The most successful at this has been Baz Luhrmann with his star cast; and his use of the exact lines in the play makes hisRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Romeo And Juliet1124 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe play Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare s most popular plays during his lifetime and, along with Hamlet, is one of his most frequently performed plays. Today, the title characters are regarded as archetypal young lovers. Romeo and Juliet belongs to a tradition of tragic romances stretching back to antiquity. Its plot is based onRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare: Greatest Playwright of All1554 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare: Greatest Playwright of All William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was a British poet and playwright, he was well known as the greatest writer of all time, he was often called the Bard of Avon.Although many facts of his life remain unknown, his poems and plays are unique and have timeless theme that touch everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, and are still widely studied and performed in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, England enjoyed a time of prosperity and stability that ledRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare: Greatest Playwright of All1568 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare: Greatest Playwright of All William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was a British poet and playwright, he was well known as the greatest writer of all time, he was often called the Bard of Avon.Although many facts of his life remain unknown, his poems and plays are unique and have timeless theme that touch everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s heart, and are still widely studied and performed in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, England enjoyed a time of prosperity and stability that ledRead MoreThe Comedy and Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Comedy and Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare The Prologue includes phrases like death-marked love and fatal loins. From this we might think that Romeo and Juliet is an unrelenting tragedy. Yet the first Act has many humorousRead MoreShakespeares Timeless Love Story Retold in Film Essay911 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"He was not of an age, but for all time!Ã¢â¬ , described Ben Jonson in regards to Shakespeare (qtd. in Chrisp 62). As research proves, there is no doubt to the truth of this statement. Adding to JonsonÃ¢â¬â¢s words in regards to ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s timelessness Peter Chrisp explains that Ã¢â¬Å"there have been more than 500 film and TV adaptations of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s dramasÃ¢â¬ (Chrisp 65; Mabillard). Furthermore, in the introduction to Gnomeo and Juliet, a Red Good Gnome says, Ã¢â¬Å"The story we are about to tell has been told
Wednesday, January 1, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1273 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2019/10/30 Category Society Essay Level High school Topics: White Privilege Essay Did you like this example? Privilege can be defined as a special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group (Oxford Dictionaries). Most people learn what privilege is at a young age. For example, most kids in elementary school learned that riding the school bus is a privilege and this privilege could be taken away at any time. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "White America: Understanding White Privilege" essay for you Create order When people think of privilege, they tend to think of it as something that one earns, not something that is simply given to someone. White Privilege, however, is an advantage in society that white people have that is unearned and typically unacknowledged. Everyday life in America consists of a multitude of privileges that are unnoticed and overlooked because they are such a norm of society that people no longer even realize that they have these privileges, that they even exist. For the white race, the unconscious everyday routine consists of many privileges that are seen as just the way it is. America is a society of white dominance and because of this whites ignore the fact that they have these privileges that minorities dont have. It is very easy for a white person to go through life never thinking of their own racial identity, whites tend to see themselves simply as just people. The education system, the political system, and ones family, along with other social influences in everyday life, dont teach people of America that the white race is privileged, people are often taught that the white race is the norm. Throughout history white privilege has suppressed the advancement of minorities, especially African Americans, which can still be seen to this day. Whites are unconsciously suppressing the minorities in ways such as education, jobs, housing and even this idea of achieving the American dream. White privilege has been around since the very beginning. In the early development of North America, there was a need for cheap labor to develop the land, resulting in the enslavement of black Africans. European colonizers enslaved black Africans because they didnt know the land and looked very different from the Europeans, which would make it harder for the black Africans to escape unseen. Before this time in history, it is believed that there were no categories for race barriers such as black or white (Smedley 1997). The concept of race was born in order to achieve separation, there was a need to use something easily and readily accessible to the eye and something that is basically impossible to change, like skin color, to help this early development of North America (Soc 1001 Lecture 16, The Social Construct of Race). Creating this idea of race helped Europeans justify enslavement, they no longer had to look at blacks as being the same as them (Soc 1001 Lecture 16, The Social Cons truct of Race). During slavery, blacks were subjected to extreme and severe conditions such as beatings, starvation, murders, lynchings, and rape. Also, during this time a very derogatory term was being used to refer to those who were black, that term being nigger. Blacks were no longer referred to as a human but as a nigger. This term was created to further emphasize a separated of class and to help whites justify enslavement. Further separating blacks was the absence of most rights that whites had, such as being able to acquire an education, suitable housing and clothing, and paying jobs. The ability to live freely is a right in itself that blacks were denied. Even after the Thirteenth Amendment was signed abolishing slavery, whites still had a multitude of advantages. Shortly after the abolishment of slavery, The Jim Crow Laws were made to keep whites in power, resulting in once again disadvantages to those of color. Later the Civil Rights Movement took place which resulted in bl ack having the same rights as whites, yet whites still had this advantage over minorities (Soc 1001 Lecture 16, The Social Construct of Race). Thus white privilege was born. In contemporary America, white privilege still exists even if its not as extreme as it used to be. Mclntosh defines white privilege as the many advantages white people enjoy, often seen as normal, and are largely unnoticed by society (Mclntosh 1989). She goes on to describe white privilege as an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions, maps, passports, codebooks, visas, clothes, tools, and blank checks (Mclntosh 1989). All of these things listed are seen by whites as normal things that are available to all in American Society, ignoring the fact the minorities do not have access to these privileges. Mclntosh expresses white privilege is the ability to be surrounded by those of the same race, not being subject to constant surveillance in public, being able to conveniently shop for their cultural food and hygiene products, along with being able to go to any barber shop for a haircut with someone working there who has the knowledge to cut their hair type, and the list goes on (Mclntosh 1989) White privilege exists in society because whites have a huge amount of advantages, mostly unacknowledged, that empower them in their daily life. These privileges create an easiness to life that other races dont have, nor will they ever have until the white race acknowledges that they have this privilege. The white race acknowledging their privilege would mean agreeing that racism still exists and then having to give up some of their power. (Soc 1001 Lecture 17, Racism Discrimination). White people have been placed on a pedestal for a very long time, leading to stereotypes about the other races that help keep inequality alive. White privileges exist in almost every function of everyday life from education, housing, income, employment, life expectancy, and many more (Soc 1001 Lecture 16, The Social Construct of Race). Equal education a right for all American youth, yet many Americans dont like to acknowledge the fact that schools are still very much segregated today and not only that but primarily white schools offer a much better education than primarily minority schools. (Soc 1001 Lecture 18, Sociology of education). Also, primarily minority schools tend to have police stationed in them, offering a direct route to jail at an early age, making it even harder to get jobs later on in life. This is a result of a racial stereotype that black kids tend to be more aggressive and overall bad people leading to these cops being stationed at the school (Soc 1001 Lecture 17, Racism Discrimination). Further, because of the higher quality of education whites receive, they are more likely to attend and graduate from po st-secondary education, resulting in a higher paying job. Mortgage lenders request that the race box is checked, only to discriminate, offering lower interest rates for white people. In white neighborhoods, people enjoy highly educated doctors, hospitals and clinics, while in lower class neighborhoods, (that are typically minorities), quality healthcare is unavailable or very inconvenient. This leads to a very vicious cycle that continues to keep minorities on the bottom while keeping whites on the top. Being able to gain rights, positions, and favors just because your skin is white is white privilege. White privilege dates back from slavery and continues to thrive in America in order to suppress minorities. One needs to understand white privilege in order to understand why American society is the way it is. White privilege is the reason why you dont see many minority professionals. White privilege is the reason why its so hard for minorities to climb up the social later. America will continue to favor whites until everyone is granted the same opportunities under the same conditions. Whites can no longer be colorblind to race, they need to start realizing these privileges and start using them to help the minorities.
Tuesday, December 24, 2019
With third world countries barely beginning modern day agriculture practices, they are looking for an easy, effective, sustainable, method to produce food for themselves and their families. Adrian Myers the author of Organic Futures: the Case of Organic Farming writes: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦with the recent growth of organic and sustainable agriculture in Third World countries, are extremely hopeful signs. The thought, therefore, of writing about the worst aspects of conventional farming was dauntingÃ¢â¬ (Myers 87). These third world countries already have contaminate drinking water which prevents them from getting certain nutrients. Therefore, these people need some kind of nourishment that they cannot get from water. These people need pesticides to protectÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Many people in our society have a misconception based on social media and the news, that GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s are unhealthy for us and they influence nature in ways that are unhealthy. GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s do mess with na ture. Genetically modified organisms is what the acronym stands for, so in a way they do mess with nature. But these modifications are changes such as being able to withstand extremely cold weather conditions or to be resistant of certain harmful diseases. People in our society really only know GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s for the news articles where they discuss parents deciding the eye color of their children. A misconception of GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s is what is prevent people from eating foods with the label Ã¢â¬Å"may contain GMOÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ . But GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s is not a new process. We have been cross breeding plants by planting certain seeds in the same bed. Cross breeding in this example is just the very basic process of GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s. GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s have not become more dangerous they have just become more technologically inclined. Adrian Myers once again, writes about what GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s are according to accounts of people who have dealt with GMOÃ¢â¬â¢s on the front lines; Ã¢â¬Å"what they are doing i s not new; it is just a further extension of two processes that humans have been using since time immemorial: cross-breeding closely related plants, or gaminess and selective breedingÃ¢â¬ (Myers 109). Selective breeding is something that people have also created a lotShow MoreRelatedOrganic Farming Case Study1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstudy exhibited positive outcomes, while 32.3 percent exhibited neutral or positive outcomes. The positive outcomes in are the results that indicated that organic farming had superior environmental effects, while the negative outcomes implied otherwise. In order to identify the structural variables that impacted to the superiority of the organic farming, the study performed a logistic regression analysis. 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